Trade orientation measurement and consequences

  • Holger Wolf


New trade theory and endogenous growth models have revived the debate on the static and dynamic implications of trade orientation. Alas, a decade of models has produced more ambiguity than clarity, placing a premium on empirical work. Unfortunately, existing indices of trade orientation invite substantial criticism. In the first part of the paper we construct a new measure, based on the difference between actual trade and the trade levels predicted by a factor endowments mode. In the second part, we use the index to examine the link between trade orientation and economic growth.
How to Cite
Wolf, H. (2016). Trade orientation measurement and consequences. Estudios de Economía, 20(3), pp. 49-86. Retrieved from